Nurture Intellectual Infrastructure for Scientific and Engineering Research

EOL scientists and engineers make new discoveries and developments that push the boundaries of observational and measurement science. Much of that is achieved through a vigorous set of internal and external collaborations and partnerships. Given a broad scope of its scientific and engineering activities, unique educational and training opportunities for the next generation of observational scientists and engineers lie in EOL. Our field campaigns provide opportunities to inform and excite the public worldwide about the importance of observational research and understanding the natural environment in which we all live. Imperative 4 is multifaceted and encompasses the following activities: 1) scientific and engineering research within EOL and in collaboration with our user community; 2) internships, new user training, and other educational efforts; and 3) outreach. 

Foster Scientific and Engineering Research in EOL 

The NASA Group Achievement Award is a prestigious certificate awarded to any combination of Government and/or non-Government individuals for an outstanding group accomplishment that has contributed substantially to NASA's mission.  In FY 2019, EOL Senior Scientist Britton Stephens and joint EOL and RAL Project Scientist Julie Haggerty were both awarded NASA Group Achievement Awards.

  • Dr. Stephens was awareded the certification as a member of the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) science team. Dr. Stephens supported two instruments in the field during all four ATom missions. There were several other NCAR members of the ATom science team, including the Atmospheric Chemistry Observations and Modeling Lab's Eric Apel, Becky Hornbrook, Alan Hills, Sam Hall, and Kirk Ullman.
  • Dr. Haggerty was awarded the certification for her work on the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) Radar Evaluation Team. Dr. Haggerty provided nowcasting and forecasting support to identify high ice water content areas for efficient data collection to meet objectives of the field project. The team's successful collection of data during this campaign, development of mitigation processes and assessment of those processed helped make aviation the safest it can be.


EOL senior Software Engineer Mike Dixon was awarded the Weather Modification Association's International Award for his development and ongoing support of the Thunderstorm Identification Tracking Analysis and Nowcasting (TITAN) software system that is widely used by the weather modification community internationally. TITAN was made open source and freely available to all users in 2002. Since then Dixon has provided upgrades, documentation and training to assist users in making use of the software. TITAN has helped the weather modification community to move towards a more analytically-based assessment of convective storm seeding. The International Award is presented to special individuals or groups who have made outstanding contributions toward international cooperation in weather modification.  The recipient is chosen by the Board of Directors from nominations made at the annual meeting, and the award is not given every year.

EOL Scientist I Adriana Raudzens Bailey was selected for an American Association for the Advancement of Science If/Then Ambassadorship. This Ambassadors program brings together 100 women from a variety of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers to serve as high-profile role models for middle school girls. STEM professionals use their skills in many fields. The program highlights women in STEM who are contributing in a vareity of fields, showing girls the different career pathways they can pursue and how STEM impacts their lives every day.  Ambassadors are selected based on their overall excellent contributions to their STEM-related field, commensurate with their career stage; demonstrated experience and abilities in STEM communication and public engagement via media, classroom, and public programs; and commitment to inspiring middle school girls to be the next generation of STEM pioneers.

Scientific Output

In FY 2019, EOL staff were involved in more than 30 publications:

  • Zhao, K., and Coauthors, 2019: Recent progress in dual-polarization radar research and applications in China. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 36, 961-974, doi:10.1007/s00376-019-9057-2.
  • Bernstein, B. C., R. M. Rasmussen, F. McDonough, and C. Wolff, 2019: Keys to differentiating between small- and large-drop icing conditions in continental clouds. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 58, 1931-1953, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-18-0038.1.
  • Lawson, R. P., and Coauthors, 2019: A review of ice particle shapes in cirrus formed in situ and in anvils. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 10049-10090, doi:10.1029/2018JD030122.
  • Chen, G., and Coauthors, 2019: Microphysical characteristics of three convective events with intense rainfall observed by polarimetric radar and disdrometer in eastern China. Remote Sensing, 11, 20, doi:10.3390/rs11172004.
  • Crowell, S., and Coauthors, 2019: The 2015–2016 carbon cycle as seen from OCO-2 and the global in situ network. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19, 9797-9831, doi:10.5194/acp-19-9797-2019.
  • Witte, M. K., H. Morrison, J. B. Jensen, A. Bansemer, and A. Gettelman, 2019: On the covariability of cloud and rain water as a function of length scale. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 76, 2295-2308, doi:10.1175/JAS-D-19-0048.1.
  • Weaver, D., and Coauthors, 2019: Comparison of ground-based and satellite measurements of water vapour vertical profiles over Ellesmere Island, Nunavut. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12, 4039-4063, doi:10.5194/amt-12-4039-2019.
  • Wanninkhof, R., and Coauthors, 2019: A surface ocean CO2 reference network, SOCONET and associated marine boundary layer CO2 measurements. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 400, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00400.
  • Bailey, A., H. K. A. Singh, and J. Nusbaumer, 2019: Evaluating a moist isentropic framework for poleward moisture transport: Implications for water isotopes over Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 7819-7827, doi:10.1029/2019GL082965.
  • Ellis, S. M., P. Tsai, C. D. Burghart, U. Romatschke, M. J. Dixon, J. Vivekanandan, J. M. Emmett, and E. Loew, 2019: Use of the Earth’s surface as a reference to correct airborne nadir-looking radar radial velocity measurements for platform motion. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36, 1343-1360, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-19-0019.1.
  • Zhang, G., and Coauthors, 2019: Current status and future challenges of weather radar polarimetry: Bridging the gap between radar meteorology/hydrology/engineering and Numerical Weather Prediction. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 36, 571-588, doi:10.1007/s00376-019-8172-4.
  • Schwartz, M. C., and Coauthors, 2019: Merged cloud and precipitation dataset from the HIAPER GV for the Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) campaign. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36, 921-940, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0111.1.
  • Green, J. R., and Coauthors, 2019: Rates of wintertime atmospheric SO2 oxidation based on aircraft observations during clear‐sky conditions over the Eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 6630-6649, doi:10.1029/2018JD030086.
  • Ortega, J., J. R. Snider, J. N. Smith, and J. M. Reeves, 2019: Comparison of aerosol measurement systems during the 2016 airborne ARISTO campaign. Aerosol Science and Technology, 53, 15 pp, doi:10.1080/02786826.2019.1610554.
  • Schuster, D. C., and Coauthors, 2019: Challenges and future directions for data management in the geosciences. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, 909-912, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0319.1.
  • Fernando, H. J. S., and Coauthors, 2019: The Perdigão: Peering into microscale details of mountain winds. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, 799-819, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0227.1.
  • D’Alessandro, J. J., M. Diao, C. Wu, X. Liu, J. B. Jensen, and B. B. Stephens, 2019: Cloud phase and relative humidity distributions over the Southern Ocean in Austral summer based on in situ observations and CAM5 simulations. Journal of Climate, 32, 2781-2805, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0232.1.
  • Hayman, M., R. A. Stillwell, and S. M. Spuler, 2019: Fast computation of absorption spectra for lidar data processing using principal component analysis. Optics Letters, 44, 1900-19-3, doi:10.1364/OL.44.001900.
  • Wang, H., S. Chai, X. Tang, B. Zhou, J. Bian, H. Vömel, K. Yu, and W. Wang, 2019: Verification of satellite ozone/temperature profile products and ozone effective height/temperature over Kunming, China. Science of The Total Environment, 661, 35-47, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.145.
  • Billings, B., S. A. Cohn, R. J. Kubesh, and W. O. J. Brown, 2019: An educational deployment of the NCAR Mobile Integrated Sounding System. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, 589-604, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0185.1.
  • Shah, V., and Coauthors, 2019: Widespread pollution from secondary sources of organic aerosols during winter in the northeastern United States. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 2974-2983, doi:10.1029/2018GL081530.
  • Barton-Grimley, R. A., J. P. Thayer, and M. Hayman, 2019: Nonlinear target count rate estimation in single-photon lidar due to first photon bias. Optics Letters, 44, 1249-1252, doi:10.1364/OL.44.001249.
  • De Boer, G., B. Argrow, J. Cassano, J. Cione, E. Frew, D. Lawrence, G. Wick, and C. Wolff, 2019: Advancing unmanned aerial capabilities for atmospheric research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, ES105-ES108, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0254.1.
  • Gaubert, B., and Coauthors, 2019: Global atmospheric CO2 inverse models converging on neutral tropical land exchange, but disagreeing on fossil fuel and atmospheric growth rate. Biogeosciences, 16, 117-134, doi:10.5194/bg-16-117-2019.
  • Rugg, A., S. A. Tessendorf, D. Jacobson, D. Adriaansen, and J. A. Haggerty, 2019: Development of new icing products for supercooled large drop conditions. 19th Conference on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, American Meteorological Society (AMS), Phoenix, AZ, US.
  • Archer, C. L., S. Wu, A. Vasel-Be-Hagh, J. F. Brodie, R. Delgado, A. St. Pé, S. Oncley, and S. Semmer, 2019: The VERTEX field campaign: Observations of near-ground effects of wind turbine wakes. Journal of Turbulence, 20, 64-92, doi:10.1080/14685248.2019.1572161.
  • Haggerty, J. A., and Coauthors, 2019: Detecting clouds associated with jet engine ice crystal icing. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, 31-40, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0252.1.
  • Albrecht, B., and Coauthors, 2019: Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET): Following the evolution of boundary layer cloud systems with the NSF–NCAR GV. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100, 93-121, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0180.1.
  • Li, D., and Coauthors, 2018: High tropospheric ozone in Lhasa within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone in 2013: Influence of convective transport and stratospheric intrusions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 17979-17994, doi:10.5194/acp-18-17979-2018.
  • Geerts, B., and Coauthors, 2018: Recommendations for in situ and remote sensing capabilities in atmospheric convection and turbulence. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99, 2463-2470, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0310.1.
  • Um, J., and Coauthors, 2018: Microphysical characteristics of frozen droplet aggregates from deep convective clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 16915-16930, doi:10.5194/acp-18-16915-2018.
  • McDuffie, E. E., and Coauthors, 2018: ClNO2 yields from aircraft measurements during the 2015 WINTER campaign and critical evaluation of the current parameterization. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 12994-13015, doi:10.1029/2018JD029358.
  • Mayernik, M., D. Schuster, S. Hou, and G. J. Stossmeister, 2018: Geoscience Digital Data Resource and Repository Service (GeoDaRRS) Workshop Report. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-552+PROC, 43 pp, doi:10.5065/D6NC601B.
  • Grasmick, C., B. Geerts, D. D. Turner, Z. Wang, and T. M. Weckwerth, 2018: The relation between nocturnal MCS evolution and its outflow boundaries in the Stable Boundary Layer: An observational study of the 15 July 2015 MCS in PECAN. Monthly Weather Review, 146, 3203-3226, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-18-0169.1.
  • Cai, H., W. -C. Lee, M. M. Bell, C. A. Wolff, X. Tang, and F. Roux, 2018: A generalized navigation correction method for airborne Doppler radar data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 35, 1999-2017, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0028.1.
  • Hubbert, J. C., J. W. Wilson, T. M. Weckwerth, S. M. Ellis, M. Dixon, and E. Loew, 2018: S-Pol’s polarimetric data reveal detailed storm features (and insect behavior). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99, 2045-2060, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0317.1.

Promote Educational Modules

Four education modules were created in FY 2019 as part of the Synergistic Environments in Graduate and Undergraduate Education (SEGUE) project. One of these is now available online through the Instrumentation and Measurement of Atmospheric Parameters online course offered through the UCAR/UCP/COMET program, and the other three are developed and to be published in FY 2020. The modules are:

EOL Internships

EOL hosted three Summer Undergraduate Program for Engineering Research (SUPER) interns in FY 2019:

Christopher Bouton worked with EOL Software Engineers Gary Granger and Isabel Suhr to redesign the EOL weather station web pages to use a more modern web interface to serve both the dynamic web pages and a data access API.

Abbi Devins-Suresh worked with EOL Project Manager Mike Daniels and Software Engineer Aaron Botnick on mapping and translating EOL's in-house XML metadata to existing sensor standards such as SensorML, to make our data streams more compatible with downstream tools. 

Stefan Suarez worked with EOL Engineer Josh Carnes on the development of a new data acquisition card for NSF/NCAR aircraft temperature measurements.


EOL leadership, scientists and engineers visited SUNY Albany in March 2019, with the goals of exposing the faculty and students to the wide vareity of work and facilities in the Laboratory, and learn more about what the University would like to see from EOL and the National Center.  The visit was a great success and included a seminar, interactions with graduate students, faculty, and administrators, and discussions with the Mesonet staff and the visit to one of their sites. 

EOL staff were instrumental in the success of several outreach events associated with field campaigns. The CHEESEHEAD Open House in August 2019 was an opportunity for the public to discover information about the science behind weather forecasting, see instrumentation used in the project, and talk to scientists and technical staff. Our staff engaged with the public during OTREC during an aircraft open house and were featured in a video about the campaign and a video about airborne instrumentation. During RELAMPAGO, EOL staff were featured in a video about the campaign's team that emphasized the multitude of opportunities and career types involved in the campaign.