Nurture Intellectual Infrastructure for Scientific and Engineering Research

EOL scientists and engineers make new discoveries and developments that push the boundaries of observational and measurement science. Much of that is achieved through a vigorous set of internal and external collaborations and partnerships. Given a broad scope of its scientific and engineering activities, unique educational and training opportunities for the next generation of observational scientists and engineers lie in EOL. Our field campaigns provide opportunities to inform and excite the public worldwide about the importance of observational research and understanding the natural environment in which we all live. Imperative 4 is multifaceted and encompasses the following activities: 1) scientific and engineering research within EOL and in collaboration with our user community; 2) internships, new user training, and other educational efforts; and 3) outreach. 

Foster Scientific and Engineering Research in EOL 

Christiaan Huygens Medal

The European Geophysical Union (EGU) Christiaan Huygens Medal was established by the Geosciences Instrumentation and Data Systems Division of the EGU to recognise significant contributions in fields within the scope of the division. The medal is awarded for an innovation, development or discovery that has had major impact in its field, or for a series of contributions, during an extended period, that has led to significant progress. J. Vivekandandan, senior scientist in EOL's Remote Sensing Facility, was the recipient of the 2018 medal, in recognition of his "ongoing and impressive record of creative, inspiring and impactful scientific activities in applied geoscience, particularly in the fields of atmospheric remote sensing and meteorology". 

ESIP logoMike Daniels, EOL Project Manager in the Data Management and Services (DMS) Facility, was the receipient of the 2018 Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) President's Award. This award honors an individual who has made the most significant contribution to the Federation in the previous year, and was awarded to Mr. Daniels for his leadership and completion of the first-ever online Policies and Procedures document for the ESIP organization.

Scientific Output

In FY 2018, EOL staff were involved in more than 30 publications in the literature:

  • Wick, G. A., T. F. Hock, P. J. Neiman, H. Vömel, M. L. Black, and J. R. Spackman, 2018: The NCAR–NOAA Global Hawk Dropsonde System. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 35, 1585-1604, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0225.1.
  • Bailey, A., E. Posmentier, and X. Feng, 2018: Patterns of evaporation and precipitation drive global isotopic changes in atmospheric moisture. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 7093-7101, doi:10.1029/2018GL078254.
  • Dee, S. G., J. Nusbaumer, A. Bailey, J. M. Russell, J. -E. Lee, B. Konecky, N. H. Buenning, and D. C. Noone, 2018: Tracking the strength of the Walker circulation with stable isotopes in water vapor. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 7254-7270, doi:10.1029/2017JD027915.
  • Schroder, J. C., and Coauthors, 2018: Sources and secondary production of organic aerosols in the northeastern United States during WINTER. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 7771-7796, doi:10.1029/2018JD028475.
  • Kelsey, E., A. Bailey, and G. Murray, 2018: The impact of Mount Washington on the height of the boundary layer and the vertical structure of temperature and moisture. Atmosphere, 9, 293, doi:10.3390/atmos9080293.
  • Shah, V., and Coauthors, 2018: Chemical feedbacks weaken the wintertime response of particulate sulfate and nitrate to emissions reductions over the eastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115, 8110-8115, doi:10.1073/pnas.1803295115.
  • Hubbert, J. C., U. Romatschke, C. Cappellin, R. Jørgensen, and M. Dixon, 2018: Modelling radar biases due to antenna topology and operating frequency. 10th European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Ede, NL.
  • Resplandy, L., and Coauthors, 2018: Revision of global carbon fluxes based on a reassessment of oceanic and riverine carbon transport. Nature Geoscience, 11, 504-509, doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0151-3.
  • Wang, M., K. Zhao, W. -C. Lee, and F. Zhang, 2018: Microphysical and kinematic structure of convective-scale elements in the inner rainband of Typhoon Matmo (2014) after landfall. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 6549-6564, doi:10.1029/2018JD028578.
  • Wen, L., and Coauthors, 2018: Drop size distribution characteristics of seven typhoons in China. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 6529-6548, doi:10.1029/2017JD027950.
  • Fay, A. R., and Coauthors, 2018: Utilizing the Drake Passage Time-series to understand variability and change in subpolar Southern Ocean pCO2. Biogeosciences, 15, 3841-3855, doi:10.5194/bg-15-3841-2018.
  • Williamson, C., A. Kupc, J. Wilson, D. W. Gesler, J. M. Reeves, F. Erdesz, R. McLaughlin, and C. A. Brock, 2018: Fast time response measurements of particle size distributions in the 3–60 nm size range with the nucleation mode aerosol size spectrometer. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11, 3491-3509, doi:10.5194/amt-11-3491-2018.
  • Bahreini, R., and Coauthors, 2018: Sources and characteristics of summertime organic aerosol in the Colorado Front Range: Perspective from measurements and WRF-Chem modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 8293-8312, doi:10.5194/acp-18-8293-2018.
  • Bunn, C. E., K. S. Repasky, M. Hayman, R. A. Stillwell, and S. M. Spuler, 2018: Perturbative solution to the two-component atmosphere DIAL equation for improving the accuracy of the retrieved absorption coefficient. Applied Optics, 57, 4440-4450, doi:10.1364/AO.57.004440.
  • Wales, P. A., and Coauthors, 2018: Stratospheric injection of brominated very short-lived substances: Aircraft observations in the Western Pacific and representation in global models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 5690-5719, doi:10.1029/2017JD027978.
  • McDuffie, E. E., and Coauthors, 2018: Heterogenous N2O5 uptake during winter: Aircraft measurements during the 2015 WINTER Campaign and critical evaluation of current parameterizations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 4345-4372, doi:10.1002/2018JD028336.
  • Witte, J. C., A. M. Thompson, H. G. J. Smit, H. Voemel, F. Posny, and R. Stübi, 2018: First reprocessing of southern hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes profile records: 3. Uncertainty in ozone profile and total column. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 3243-3268, doi:10.1002/2017JD027791.
  • Mitchell, L. E., and Coauthors, 2018: Long-term urban carbon dioxide observations reveal spatial and temporal dynamics related to urban characteristics and growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115, 2912-2917, doi:10.1073/pnas.1702393115.
  • Bares, R., and Coauthors, 2018: The wintertime covariation of CO2 and criteria pollutants in an urban valley of the western United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 2684-2703, doi:10.1002/2017JD027917.
  • Eidhammer, T., V. Grubišić, R. Rasmussen, and K. Ikeda, 2018: Winter precipitation efficiency of mountain ranges in the Colorado Rockies under climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123, 2573-2590, doi:10.1002/2017JD027995.
  • Stephens, B. B., and Coauthors, 2018: The O2/N2 ratio and CO2 airborne Southern Ocean study. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99, 381-402, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0206.1.
  • Nugent, A. D., and R. Rios-Berrios, 2018: Factors leading to extreme precipitation on Dominica from tropical storm Erika (2015). Monthly Weather Review, 146, 525-541, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0242.1.
  • Vivekanandan, J., and E. Loew, 2018: Airborne polarimetric Doppler weather radar: Trade-offs between various engineering specifications. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 7, 21-37, doi:10.5194/gi-7-21-2018.
  • Wilson, J. W., S. B. Trier, D. W. Reif, R. D. Roberts, and T. M. Weckwerth, 2018: Nocturnal elevated convection initiation of the PECAN 4 July hailstorm. Monthly Weather Review, 146, 243-262, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0176.1.
  • Tang, X., W. -C. Lee, and M. Bell, 2018: Subrainband structure and dynamic characteristics in the principal rainband of Typhoon Hagupit (2008). Monthly Weather Review, 146, 157-173, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0178.1.
  • Scheffknecht, P., S. Serafin, and V. Grubišić, 2017: A long-lived supercell over mountainous terrain. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 143, 2973-2986, doi:10.1002/qj.3127.
  • Koenig, T. K., and Coauthors, 2017: BrO and inferred Bry profiles over the western Pacific: relevance of inorganic bromine sources and a Bry minimum in the aged tropical tropopause layer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 15245-15270, doi:10.5194/acp-17-15245-2017.
  • Thompson, A. M., and Coauthors, 2017: First reprocessing of Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) ozone profiles (1998-2016): 2. Comparisons with satellites and ground-based instruments. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122, 13000-13025, doi:10.1002/2017JD027406.
  • Heller, R., and Coauthors, 2017: Mountain waves modulate the water vapor distribution in the UTLS. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 14853-14869, doi:10.5194/acp-17-14853-2017.
  • Hayman, M., 2017: Demonstration of a diode-laser-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) for quantitative profiling of clouds and aerosols. Optics Express, 25, A1096-A1110, doi:10.1364/OE.25.0A1096.
  • Gaubert, B., and Coauthors, 2017: Comparison of CO2 inverse model estimates to airborne and independent global scale constraints. OCO-2 Science Team Meeting, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Boulder, CO, US.
  • Chatterjee, A., and Coauthors, 2017: Influence of El Niño on atmospheric CO2 over the tropical Pacific Ocean: Findings from NASA’s OCO-2 mission. Science, 358, 9 pp, doi:10.1126/science.aam5776.


Promote Educational Efforts

New Education Modules

Four education modules were created in FY 2018 as part of the Synergistic Environments in Graduate and Undergraduate Education (SEGUE) project, and are now available online through the Instrumentation and Measurement of Atmospheric Parameters online course offered through the UCAR/UCP/COMET program. Those are:

Advanced Study Program Summer 2018 Colloquium

EOL was awarded the organization of the 2018 ASP Summer Colloquium. Each year, this colloquium is designed for graduate students on subjects that represent new or rapidly developing areas of research for which good course material may not yet be available. The colloquium brings together lecturers and graduate students to NCAR and generally includes about 25 student participants, and several lecturers from NCAR and the community at large.

The 2018 Colloquium topic was on Synthesis of Observations and Models in Studies of Shallow and Deep Clouds and was held June 4-15, 2018. The fusion of observations and modeling has been of growing importance in recent years in the atmospheric sciences and, more generally, in the Earth System science research. While centered on clouds and environments in which they form, the colloquium explored ways of synergistically using field observations and numerical modeling at all scales – from large eddy simulations, with horizontal resolutions on the order of centimeters to meters, to global models with horizontal resolutions at several hundred kilometers – for physical process studies and for advancing our understanding of cloud-related processes and their representation in numerical models. 

EOL Internships

EOL hosted three Summer Undergraduate Program for Engineering Research (SUPER) interns in FY 2018:

  • Sophia Chen, a student at Brown University, was mentored by EOL project manager Mike Daniels and software engineer Aaron Botnick and performed tests on and added features to CHORDS real-time data streaming capabilities.
  • Jessica Barnitz, a student at the University of Colorado-Boulder, was mentored by EOL software engineer Gary Granger. She helped modernize the software behind EOL's "rooftop weather stations", a collection of commercial, off-the-shelf weather sensors deployed to NCAR and related sites whose measurements are made available to the public through a simple Perl CGI web application and pre-generated plots.  
  • Sidarth Raghunathan, a student at Cornell University, was mentored by EOL project scientist Matt Hayman, and worked to characterize the spectral purity of a fiber coupled tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA), which fit into the WV-DIAL development program.

Support Outreach 

During the field phase of WE-CAN (Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption and Nitrogen) in July - August 2018, EOL helped arrange an aircraft public open house and media event in Boise, ID, from which the campaign was based. Over 200 members of the public and media attended. After the field phase in July-August 2018, the WE-CAN PIs and EOL conducted educational flights in September 2018. The short flights during this component helped support a graduate course focused on airborne observations and offered through Colorado State University.

EOL also developed and held a public open house in Tasmania during the SOCRATES (Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experimental Study) deployment. That event was extremely well-attended, with more than 250 visitors interacting with project PIs and staff.